Assume the Position

Thursday, January 16, 2003
 
Trafficking in flesh. First a short excerpt from a news article and then a quick quiz.

The excerpt:

Lured … by the promise of jobs, 20 women -- some as young as 14 -- were forced into prostitution rings that … imprisoned the victims in a life of sex slavery, beatings and forced abortions.

[T]he victims were hauled first to a border crossing … then to a "safe house" … [t]hen came the end of the line -- they were forced to work as prostitutes for as many as six days a week…

Prostitutes weren't allowed to leave until they paid back their smuggling debt -- $2,400 in one case. And they couldn't leave brothels at all without an escort.

Threats of violence kept the women in line… Some threats became reality.

A pregnant woman who was kicked in the belly suffered a miscarriage. A 21-year-old woman was thrown in a closet for trying to escape. A 26-year-old woman was hit for trying to stop the rape of a 15-year-old girl. Women forced to have abortions were forced back to work within weeks.

Now the quiz. Identify the following countries:
  1. [This country] is a destination and transit country for trafficked persons primarily from sub-Saharan Africa (especially Nigeria), central and Eastern Europe (especially Albania), and Asia (especially China). Nigerian and Albanian victims are usually young women, between the ages of 21 and 30, destined for prostitution in [the] largest cities, or in transit to other … countries for the same purpose.

  2. [This country] is a primarily a destination country, but also a transit country, for women and girls trafficked for the purpose of sexual exploitation.

  3. [This country] is a destination country for trafficked victims, primarily women, from Africa, Central and Eastern Europe, and the former Soviet Union. To a lesser extent, [it] is also a transit country for trafficked women from Africa, South America, and Eastern and Southern Europe. Women are trafficked into prostitution and domestic servitude.

  4. [This country] is a destination country for women trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation … Female trafficking victims come from Southeast Asia, especially Thailand and the Philippines, and increasingly from Colombia, Russia and other states of the former Soviet Union.

  5. [This country] is both a destination and transit country for trafficking in persons, predominantly women and girls, from all parts of the world, including Nigeria, Thailand, the Philippines, Russia, Bulgaria, China, South America and Central and Eastern Europe.
Sort of trick questions, but I didn't say the quiz would be based on the excerpt. Here are some generally correct answers, but any of numerous countries would be correct, especially for question 2.
  1. Belgium
  2. Germany
  3. France
  4. Japan
  5. Netherlands
The excerpt was from the United States, specifically a "family-run prostitution ring based in Veracruz, Mexico," that "served 12 brothels in mostly rural Florida cities and two in South Carolina" and was busted in 1998. That bust was similar to a 2001 bust in San Diego (PDF) because the prime clientele in both cases were migrant workers. The US State Department says, "According to a 1997 estimate, some 50,000 women and children are trafficked annually for sexual exploitation into the United States."

Awhile ago I posted that people tend to give too much significance to events being played up by the media when they don't realize how routine those events are. The examples I used were the reports on US attacks on Iraqi air defense sites as part of maintaining the No-Fly Zones and reports that the Turkish police seized some smuggled "uranium" which finally turned out to be nothing but "zinc, iron, zirconium and manganese." A similar error is that people often make an erroneous connection between the reasons the media is interested and reports on an issue and its cause.

That seems to be the case with Jim Henley's comments (1 and 2) based on the MSNBC reporting about human trafficking and forced prostitution in the Balkans. The media is interested in the Balkans because of the NATO interventions and the presence of peacekeepers and Henley concludes, "The slavers are there because KFOR is there." Nice, simple, and basically off the mark.

By underestimating the worldwide scope of trafficking in persons, especially women and children tricked or forced into sex slavery, its easy to claim the peaceakeepers are the cause the problem. But the slavers would be in the Balkans whether there had been a NATO intervention or not, and the only thing Henley's economic analysis of prostitution and war really indicates is whether any location is more likely to be a source of sex slaves than their destination. And that analysis leaves out relative economic and ethnic considerations. For example, Poland is both a source and destination. It is a destination for women trafficked in from Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Romania, and Bulgaria; and Poles are trafficked out to Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and Switzerland.

And it's difficult to just accept the sole "outsiders with spare cash" rational unless you think migrant workers in California and Florida have more "spare cash" than most Californians and Floridians as the reason for trafficking in women to service them. The reality in that case is just the opposite, the clientele is too poor and doesn't have the mobility to patronize the local prostitutes, and so becomes a market for the traffickers.

In general, importation is driven more by ethinic issues than economic ones: it's bad form to enslave locals, no matter what the economic range of the clientele. So Henley's assertion that "Local militias were not importing women from other countries to enslave" before the arrival of NATO is probably bunk. There where probably plenty of Bosnian girls shipped to the brothels of Belgrade before the intervention. Depending upon which stage of the breakup of Yugoslavia you are talking about, it would have been internal trafficking or cross-border trafficking. And since Belgrade is currently the major transit hub for trafficking, you can be sure some number of trafficking victims from Moldova, Romania, Ukraine, Bulgaria, and elsewhere end up in Belgrade brothels—even though there are no NATO or UN peacekeepers in Serbia.

In fact, while the MSNBC reporters hang out in Macedonia, the BBC has this report from Belgrade:

The authorities in the Yugoslav capital Belgrade have announced the arrest of 150 people, most of them involved in trafficking women for prostitution from the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.

The huge police sweep hit more than 400 bars and nightclubs across the country.

That's Serbia, not Bosnia, not Macedonia, and not the Kosovo portion of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
Among those detained was Rade Spalevic, a man whom the head of the police organised crime department said was one of the untouchable gang leaders of the prostitute slave trade.

Mr Spalevic's nightclub, Kazanova, near Belgrade was raided after two young Serbian women escaped.

He was said to have used a converted Chevrolet vehicle for his trade and threatened to unleash fierce dogs on any of the women who tried to escape.

Another 13 women were freed from the club, most of whom were Romanian, according to police.

Seventeen other women were freed from other clubs targeted by the raids, but they are the tip of the iceberg.

The women freed on Thursday said they had been tricked and sold for the equivalent of $550.

So who were the clients at Kazanova? Henley says of Macedonia, "Ask yourself: who can afford prostitutes in a region whose economy has been devastated by war and terror? Not the locals, mostly." Yet there are neither NATO peacekeepers nor UN International Police in Serbia to make up the clientele.

The former Yugoslavia is a screwed up mess, but neither the NATO intervention nor the current presence of peacekeepers is the cause of that mess. As for the trafficking, nobody is going to deny that the presence of 50,000 or peacekeepers between Bosnia and Kosovo drive up demand, any more than they would deny that 37,000 US troops in the Republic of Korea keep the up the demand for bargirls.

Henley has a simple solution to the problem in Macedonia and Kosovo. In the first post, he says, correctly, "The 'multinational peacekeeping force' substantially constitutes the demand for women like Natasha. In the second post, responding to Matthew Yglesias, he provides his answer to the question of whether or not there is something that can be done: "Ironically there is: get out."

But such a simple answer ignores what's buried in Preston Mendenhall's MSNBC report from Macedonia back in September 2001:

Farther along the trafficking pipeline, hundreds of women and girls are smuggled into Europe every day and forced onto the streets of cities like Hamburg, Paris, London and Amsterdam.

Amsterdam, a city synonymous with hedonism, is perhaps best known for its legalized sex industry, in which prostitutes pay taxes and undergo regular health exams.

The city’s Red Light District is a virtual Disneyland of sex — with only European Union passport holders allowed to ply the trade.

But only a few miles’ drive from the city center, traditional Dutch tolerance is helping fuel the trafficking problem. In Theemsweg, a fenced-in, football field-sized parking lot built by the government for unregulated sex workers, girls sit in bus shelters — also courtesy of the government — waiting for clients. There are no EU citizens here — and the prostitutes’ countries of origin are strikingly familiar: Ukraine, Moldova, Belarus, Romania, Bulgaria, Czech Republic. On weekends, men looking for cheap sex wait in cars that back up for a mile. Sexual encounters, which take place right in the cars, cost $20.

Asked how she got to Theemsweg, 20-year-old Anna from Russia’s Far East said, “You don’t want to know.” Dutch police officials, speaking privately, estimate that as many as 70 percent of the prostitutes in the Netherlands are working illegally, using false documents provided by smugglers to skirt Dutch and European laws.

All having the peacekeepers "get out" of the Balkans will do for women like Natasha is change the destination for some of them. Human trafficking has more to do with the availability of supply, which depends on conditions in places like Moldova and Belarus, than it does on the location of the demand centers. If the peacekeepers leave, fewer women may end up in Macedonia; but trafficking won't lesson and the women will just wind up somewhere else, maybe some place better in Europe or maybe some place worse in the Mid East, Africa or Asia.

And it's not like the EU plans on doing anything if this piece Radio Free Europe carried from Hina back in August is accurate:

NO EU INTEREST IN COMBATING ILLEGAL PROSTITUTION IN BOSNIA?

The UN-led police force's (IPTF) campaign to end forced prostitution in Bosnian brothels is expected to come to an end when the EU takes control of police operations in Bosnia from the UN, Hina reported from Sarajevo on 5 August. The UN campaign has led to 600 raids and the closure of 124 brothels, but complicity of local police and judges with the brothel owners has limited the effectiveness of the operations. Representatives of the IPTF told Hina that the EU "is not interested in [continuing] the program due to a lack of staff and funding." A British police officer noted that the brothel owners are aware of this and "not in the least upset." Belgrade is the main center of human trafficking in the region. Young women are often sold for between $1,250 and $1,750.

The Balkans trafficking is a rotten deal all around, but it needs to be seen in perspective before simply blaming it on intervention and the peacekeepers. What will follow are the first portions of the country narratives from the US State Department's 2002 "Trafficking in Persons Report" to Congress.

In the reports, countries are classified into three tiers based upon how well their laws regarding trafficking in persons and attempts to enforce those laws meet the minimum requirements set by Congress in the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000 (Public Law 106-386: Text, PDF). (People smuggling for purposes of illegal immigration is considered a separate activity. It becomes trafficking if the smugglers hold the victims in indentured servitude to work off their debt.)

The governments of countries in Tier 1 fully comply with the Act's minimum standards. Such governments criminalize and have successfully prosecuted trafficking, and have provided a wide range of protective services to victims. Victims are not jailed or otherwise punished solely as a result of being trafficked, and they are not summarily returned to a country where they may face hardship as a result of being trafficked. In addition, these governments sponsor or coordinate prevention campaigns aimed at stemming the flow of trafficking.

The governments of countries in Tier 2 do not yet fully comply with the Act’s minimum standards but are making significant efforts to bring themselves into compliance with those standards. Some are strong in the prosecution of traffickers, but provide little or no assistance to victims. Others work to assist victims and punish traffickers, but have not yet taken any significant steps to prevent trafficking. Some governments are only beginning to address trafficking, but nonetheless have already taken significant steps towards the eradication of trafficking.

The governments of countries in Tier 3 do not fully comply with the minimum standards and are not making significant efforts to bring themselves into compliance. Some of these governments refuse to acknowledge the trafficking problem within their territory. On a more positive note, several other governments in this category are beginning to take concrete steps to combat trafficking. While these steps do not yet reach the appropriate level of significance, many of these governments are on the path to placement on Tier 2.

The State reports only include countries where there is "significant" trafficking, meaning credible reports of 100 or more persons trafficked annually. Because tackling transnational trafficking in persons as a specific problem (rather than a patchwork approach toward smuggling, forced prostitution, bonded-labor, etc.) is a relatively new approach, State admits their report, "the most comprehensive international anti-trafficking review issued by any single government," is not conclusive:
The State Department received reports of possible trafficking in many countries that do not appear in this report. The Department cross-checked all reports with our diplomatic missions abroad and other sources. If the Department determined that the information received was not reliable or did not adequately document a significant number of victims, the country was not placed in the report. If additional information becomes available, such countries may be included in a future report. A few examples of the many countries in this situation include Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Botswana.

Another difficulty in obtaining information, which mainly affects transit countries, arises from the fact that it may be difficult to distinguish between trafficking in persons and migrant smuggling. The mere facilitation of illegal entry into a country is not, on its own, trafficking in persons, although such migrant smuggling may be part of a trafficking operation. Trafficking victims, as they are being moved through transit countries, may not know that they will be forced into prostitution or labor when they arrive in the destination country. Similarly, border patrol or migration officials may recognize illegal entry into or transit through a country but not have information alerting them that the smuggling is part of a trafficking situation. In preparing this year’s report, the Department noted several countries, such as Croatia, that appear to have considerable migrant smuggling, and thus may be transit countries for trafficking. However, for the reasons mentioned above, the Department does not have enough information at this time to include these countries in this year’s report.

Of course, such cavets will never satisfy some quarters:
Pakistan: Pakistan should be Tier 3. The trafficking report fails to mention that draft trafficking legislation is specific to trafficking for forced labor as camel jockeys, rather than generally for bonded labor, in which 100,000 children are reportedly held within Pakistan, or other forms of forced labor. The report minimizes the abuse that women victims of trafficking face under Pakistan's discriminatory Hudood laws. These laws criminalize extramarital sex and place the burden of proof on the victim, thus discouraging trafficking victims from filing charges. For more information on the discrimination that women face in gaining legal redress in Pakistan, please see http://www.hrw.org/press/1999/oct/pakpr.htm and http://www.hrw.org/reports/1999/pakistan/

Argentina: Argentina provides an example of inconsistencies between the State Department's own reports. The report does not include a summary of Argentina's record on trafficking, even though Argentina is mentioned in the report as a destination country for people trafficked from Brazil and the Dominican Republic. In addition, the latest State Department human rights reports contain information on trafficking of persons into Argentina from Bolivia, Paraguay, and the Dominican Republic. According to recent news reports, 24 trafficked women from the Dominican Republic alone were identified and returned in 2001. International organizations have noted that trafficking is a grave problem in Argentina.

Japan: Japan should be a Tier 3 country. The report mentions only trafficking of women for "sexual exploitation." The report fails to distinguish debt-bondage as forced labor. The Japanese government continues to treat trafficked women as illegal immigrants or criminals. They are often arrested and deported. Traffickers are rarely punished. The report once again minimizes the extent of the Japanese government's refusal to address this issue as a human rights concern and credits Japan for hosting a trafficking conference that was outward looking in nature. For more information on trafficking to Japan, please see http://www.hrw.org/press/2000/09/japan0921.htm and http://www.hrw.org/reports/2000/japan/

Nigeria: Nigeria should be in Tier 3, given the magnitude of the trafficking problem in Nigeria and the inadequacy of the government's remedial efforts. Although the report mentions Nigeria's draft federal anti-trafficking legislation, it does not cite its shortcomings: the weak provisions on witness protection, victim services, and law enforcement guidelines. The Nigerian government fails to compile and publish disaggregated statistics on trafficking victims and legal proceedings against traffickers.

Griping by Human Rights Watch aside, here is the list of countries linked to a local summary in this post. Instead of listing the countries by Tier, I've listed them in four groups: Source Countries, Destination Countries, Transit Countries, and countries with Internal Trafficking. While this results in significant duplication in the lists since some countries are in all four categories and most countries are in at least two, I think it provides a better overview of the scope of the problem. The local summaries consist of the first portion of the country narratives from the 2002 report, with some material that differed in the 2001 report included in brackets [ ]. The first portion of each country narrative describes the nature of trafficking in each listed country, the second portion (not included here) describes the governmental efforts (if any) to deal with trafficking.

Source Countries
Afghanistan, Albania, Angola, Armenia, Bangladesh, Belarus, Benin, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Cambodia, Cameroon, China, Colombia, Cote d'Ivoire, Czech Republic, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Kazakhstan, Korea (Republic of, South), Kyrgyz Republic, Laos, Latvia, Lithuania, Malaysia, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Morocco, Nepal, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Russia, Senegal, Slovenia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Ukraine, Vietnam, Yugoslavia (Serbia, Kosovo and Montenegro).

Destination Countries
Austria, Bahrain, Belgium, Benin, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, China, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Czech Republic, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, France, Gabon, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Hong Kong, Hungary, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Korea (Republic of, South), Kyrgyz Republic, Lebanon, Lithuania, Macedonia, Malaysia, Mali, Mexico, Netherlands, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Turkey, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Yugoslavia (Federal Republic of - includes Serbia, Kosovo and Montenegro).

Transit Countries
Afghanistan, Albania, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Benin, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, China, Costa Rica, Czech Republic, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, France, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Hong Kong, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Korea (Republic of, South), Kyrgyz Republic, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Mali, Mexico, Morocco, Netherlands, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Senegal, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, Thailand, Togo, Turkey, Ukraine, United States, Vietnam, Yugoslavia (Federal Republic of - includes Serbia, Kosovo and Montenegro).

Internal Trafficking
Afghanistan, Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Brazil, Cambodia, Cameroon, China, Colombia, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Lithuania, Malaysia, Mali, Mexico, Morocco, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, Vietnam.

Afghanistan (2002 - Tier 3, 2001 - Not Listed)
Afghanistan is a country of origin and transit for women and children trafficked for the purposes of sexual exploitation and labor. Internal trafficking of women and children for purposes of sexual exploitation and forced labor also occurs. Afghanistan was under two different governments during this period: the Taliban and the Afghan Interim Authority (AIA). Until December 22, 2001, when the AIA took over there was no functioning central government. During most of 2001, the Taliban, a Pashtun-dominated fundamentalist Islamic movement, controlled approximately ninety percent of the country. Taliban forces were responsible for disappearances of women and children, many of whom were trafficked to Pakistan and the Gulf States. Under the Taliban, women and girls were subjected to rape, kidnapping, and forced marriage. Since the AIA took over, there are reports that Afghan women and children have been trafficked to Pakistan and the Middle East for purposes of sexual exploitation and forced labor. There have been numerous reports that impoverished Afghan families have sold their children for purposes of forced sexual exploitation, marriage, and labor. Albania (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Tier 2)
Albania is a source and transit country primarily for women and girls trafficked for the purposes of sexual exploitation to Italy and Greece, and on to other EU countries, such as Belgium, France, and the Netherlands. Victims transiting Albania come mostly from Romania and Moldova, with smaller numbers from Bulgaria and Ukraine. Young boys are also reportedly trafficked from Albania to work as beggars in Italy and Greece. Angola (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Tier 2)
Angola is a country of origin for persons trafficked primarily to South Africa and Mozambique. Much of Angola’s trafficking problem has been related to its civil war, which ended with an April 2002 cease fire. During the civil war children were abducted by the UNITA rebel movement for use in forced labor and in military service. UNITA trafficked women for forced labor and sexual exploitation. Armenia (2002 - Tier 3, 2001 - Not Listed)
Armenia is a source country for women and girls trafficked to the United Arab Emirates, Turkey, Russia, Greece and Germany for sexual exploitation. Austria (2002 - Tier 1, 2001 - Tier 1)
Austria is primarily a transit country but is also a destination country for women trafficked into prostitution. Women are trafficked predominantly from Bulgaria, Romania, and countries from the former Soviet Union, such as Ukraine. To a lesser extent, women are also trafficked from the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary. Women transiting through Austria are destined for other European Union countries, especially Italy. Most trafficking victims are in Vienna. [Women also are trafficked from Asia and Latin American for domestic labor.] Bahrain (2002 - Tier 3, 2001 - Tier 3)
Bahrain is a destination country for trafficked persons. Trafficking victims who come to Bahrain in search of work are put into situations of coerced labor and sometimes slave-like conditions, including extreme working conditions, and physical or sexual abuse. Many low-skilled foreign workers have their passports withheld, contracts altered, and suffer partial or short or long-term non-payment of salaries. Victims come primarily from India, the Philippines, Bangladesh, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka to work as domestic servants and in the construction industry. [There are reports that some foreign workers are recruited for employment on the basis of fraudulent contracts and then forced into domestic servitude or sexual exploitation. Workers from the Philippines, Ethiopia, India, Russia, and Belarus have reported being forced into domestic servitude and sexual exploitation.] Bangladesh (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Tier 2)
Bangladesh is a country of origin for women and children trafficked for purposes of sexual exploitation, domestic servitude, and bonded labor. There is also internal trafficking of women and children from rural areas to the larger cities. The majority of trafficking victims are women and girls trafficked to India, Pakistan, Bahrain, and the Middle East. Boys are also trafficked to the United Arab Emirates and Qatar and forced to work as camel jockeys and to the United Arab Emirates to work as beggars. Belarus (2002 - Tier 3, 2001 - Tier 3)
Belarus is a country of origin and transit for women and children trafficked for purposes of sexual exploitation to Russia, Ukraine, Lithuania, Germany, Israel, Poland, Czech Republic, Turkey, Cyprus, Greece, Hungary and the Federated Republic of Yugoslavia. Belgium (2002 - Tier 1, 2001 - Tier 1)
Belgium is a destination and transit country for trafficked persons primarily from sub-Saharan Africa (especially Nigeria), central and Eastern Europe (especially Albania), and Asia (especially China). Nigerian and Albanian victims are usually young women, between the ages of 21 and 30, destined for prostitution in Belgium’s largest cities, or in transit to other European Union countries for the same purpose. Chinese victims are often young men destined for manual labor in restaurants and sweatshops. Benin (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Tier 2)
Benin is a source, transit, and destination country for internationally trafficked persons, mostly children. Trafficking also occurs within Benin, where children from poor rural and less-literate families are sent away to work as domestic and commercial helpers for wealthier relations or employers. Many of these children end up in indentured servitude, subjected to physical and sexual abuse. Beninese children are trafficked to Ghana, Gabon, Nigeria, and Cote d’Ivoire, while children from neighboring Niger, Togo, and Burkina Faso, are trafficked to Benin. Some Beninese women are trafficked to European countries for prostitution. Bosnia-Herzegovina (2002 - Tier 3, 2001 Tier 3)
Bosnia is a [major] destination [and transit] country for women and girls trafficked into sexual exploitation mostly from Moldova, Romania, and Ukraine, and to a lesser extent, Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Brazil (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Tier 2)
In Brazil, women and girls are internally trafficked for sexual exploitation and to a lesser extent as domestic labor. Men are internally trafficked for labor, primarily in the agricultural sector. Brazil is also a source of women and girls who are trafficked for sexual exploitation to countries including Argentina, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Paraguay, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Bulgaria (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Tier 2)
Bulgaria is a source and transit country and, to a lesser extent, a destination country for women and girls trafficked for purposes of sexual exploitation. Victims trafficked to and through Bulgaria are predominantly from Georgia, Ukraine, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Lithuania and Latvia. Women and girls trafficked from Bulgaria – a disproportionate number of Roma origin – and those in transit through Bulgaria are trafficked to Albania, Austria, Bosnia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Kosovo, Germany, Greece, Italy, Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, South Africa, Spain and Turkey. Burkina Faso (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Tier 2)
Burkina Faso is a source, transit, and to a lesser extent, a destination country for children trafficked to labor under conditions comparable to involuntary servitude. To a much lesser extent, Burkina Faso is a source and transit country for women being trafficked to Europe for prostitution. Most of the trafficking problems of Burkina Faso result from a traditional regional pattern of poverty-driven mass migration of very young children in search of subsistence labor in mining, crafts, agriculture, and as domestics. These children are frequently subject to threats of violence and sexual abuse. [Burkina Faso is a transit country for trafficked children, notably from Mali. Children in transit from Mali are often destined for Cote D'Ivoire. Trafficked Malian children are also destined for Burkina Faso. Destinations for trafficked Burkinabe children include Cote D'Ivoire, Ghana, and Nigeria. In 1999 there were reports of trafficked Burkinabe children destined for Germany.] Burma (2002 - Tier 3, 2001 - Tier 3)
Burma is a country of origin for women and girls trafficked to Thailand, China, Taiwan, Malaysia, Pakistan, and Japan for sexual exploitation, domestic and factory work. [Burma is a country of origin for trafficking of persons, primarily of women and girls, to Thailand and other countries as factory workers and household servants, and for sexual exploitation. There also is internal trafficking of women and girls from areas of extreme poverty to areas where prostitution is common. Men and boys reportedly are trafficked to other countries, primarily to Thailand, for sexual exploitation and for other purposes, but this appears to be a small percentage of the overall flow. In addition to Thailand, Burmese adults are trafficked to China, Taiwan, Malaysia, Singapore, and Japan. While most observers believe the number of victims is at least several thousand per year, there are no reliable statistics available on the total number of trafficked persons.] Cambodia (2002 - Tier 3, 2001 - Tier 2)
Cambodia is a source, destination and transit country and there is internal trafficking in women and children. Victims are trafficked from Vietnam for the purpose of sexual exploitation. Cambodians are trafficked to Thailand for sexual exploitation, street begging and bonded labor. [Trafficking is both domestic and international. Cambodian men, women, and children are trafficked internationally, principally to Thailand for the purpose of sexual exploitation and for various forms of bonded labor, including street begging. Cambodia is a destination country for young women and girls from Vietnam, who are trafficked for purposes of sexual exploitation. Internally, children and adults from the poorer rural areas of Cambodia are trafficked to Phnom Penh and other commercial areas for sexual exploitation and forced labor.] Cameroon (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Tier 2)
Cameroon is a source, transit, and destination country for children who are trafficked for forced labor, to and from neighboring countries, such as Benin, Chad, Gabon, and Nigeria. A majority of the children are trafficked internally to urban centers for indentured or domestic servitude. Women are trafficked for prostitution to European countries, including France and Switzerland. Canada (2002 - Tier 1, 2001 - Tier 1)
Canada is a destination and a transit point to the United States for women, children, and men trafficked for purposes of sexual exploitation, labor and the drug trade. Trafficking victims originate primarily in China, Southeast Asia, Eastern Europe, and Russia. [Canada is a primarily a transit and destination country for trafficking in persons, primarily from East Asia (especially China and Korea), Eastern Europe, Russia, and Honduras. There are also isolated cases of Canadian minors trafficked by pimps to the United States for the purpose of sexual exploitation. Victims of trafficking who come to Canada are young women trafficked for purposes of prostitution or persons destined for manual labor in restaurants, sweatshops, and agricultural work.] China (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Tier 2)
China has an internal trafficking problem and is also a source, transit and destination country for trafficking in women and children. Women and girls are sold as brides and for sexual exploitation. Also, people are forced into labor and debt bondage by international smuggling rings, which move people to Canada, Europe, Japan and the United States to work in sweatshops, restaurants and domestic service. While most trafficking occurs domestically, foreign victims have come from Burma, Laos, North Korea, and Vietnam. Chinese victims are trafficked to Australia, Burma, Malaysia, Laos and Vietnam. [Internationally, Chinese citizens are trafficked to Malaysia, Burma, Japan, North America, Australia, the Philippines, and Taiwan for sexual exploitation and indentured servitude in sweatshops and restaurants. China is a destination country for trafficked persons from Burma, North Korea, Vietnam, Laos, and Russia, who are subject to sexual exploitation as prostitutes or in arranged marriages.] Colombia (2002 - Tier 1, 2001 - Tier 1)
Colombia is a source of women and children who are trafficked for sexual exploitation and, to a lesser degree, men for forced labor. There is also internal trafficking for sexual exploitation and forced conscription in terrorist groups. Women and children are trafficked to Europe, especially Spain and Japan, and to a lesser extent, the United States. [Colombia is a source country for trafficked persons, especially women and children, to Asia (Japan, Singapore, and Hong Kong), Western Europe (the Netherlands and Spain), and the United States. Most victims are young women trafficked for purposes of sexual exploitation.] Costa Rica (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Tier 2)
Costa Rica is a destination and transit point for women and children trafficked for the purpose of sexual exploitation. Most trafficking victims originate in Bulgaria, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, Russia, Panama and the Philippines. There have also been other Asian and African victims. Illegal migration – including both trafficking in persons and migrant smuggling – goes through Costa Rica en route to the United States and Canada. [The country serves as a transit point for trafficked persons from Asia to the United States. There also have been reports of girls from the Philippines being trafficked to the country for the purpose of sexual exploitation. Isolated cases of trafficking have involved persons from Africa, Bolivia, China, Colombia, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and the Middle East.] Cote d'Ivoire (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Tier 2)
Cote d'Ivoire is primarily a destination for children trafficked to labor as plantation and other agricultural laborers, as mine workers, and as domestic servants, under conditions in some cases approaching involuntary servitude. Foreign nationals are trafficked from neighboring countries, primarily Mali and Burkina Faso, but also Benin, Togo, Guinea, Ghana, and Nigeria. An age-old pattern of child-migration in search of a better life has been perverted in relatively recent times by intermediaries who "buy" children from families and then place them in jobs where they are often threatened, mistreated, and not free to leave. Some women from Cote d'Ivoire are also trafficked to Europe and the Middle East for purposes of prostitution, and some women from the region are brought to Cote d'Ivoire's large cities for the same reason. [Ivoirian women and children are trafficked to African, European, and Middle Eastern countries. Children are trafficked to Cote D'Ivoire from Mali, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Ghana, Benin, and Togo for indentured or domestic servitude, farm labor, and sexual exploitation. Women principally are trafficked from Nigeria, Ghana, Liberia, and Asian countries to Cote D'Ivoire.] Czech Republic (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Tier 2)
The Czech Republic is a country of origin, transit and destination predominantly for women from Moldova, Romania, Bulgaria, Ukraine, the Balkans and Asia trafficked to Western Europe for sexual exploitation. Czech girls are trafficked into forced prostitution to and from the former Soviet Union, Africa, Asia and the Middle East. Czech girls are also trafficked to Western Europe. Dominican Republic (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Tier 2)
The Dominican Republic is primarily a source country for trafficked women and, less frequently, children. Women, mostly between the ages of 18 and 25, are trafficked for sexual exploitation to Spain, Holland, Argentina, Venezuela and Italy. Other destination countries include Switzerland, Germany, Greece, Belgium, Curacao, St. Maarten and Antigua. Both boys and girls are trafficked within the country, mainly to tourist areas for work in the sex trade. Haitian women and children reportedly are trafficked to the Dominican Republic to beg in the streets. El Salvador (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Tier 2)
El Salvador is a source, destination and transit country for trafficking in women and children for sexual exploitation. Internal trafficking for sexual exploitation also occurs. Salvadorans are trafficked to other Central American countries, Mexico and the United States. Women and children are trafficked from Nicaragua, Honduras and some South American countries through or to El Salvador. Equatorial Guinea (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Not Listed)
Children are trafficked internally and from neighboring countries, such as Nigeria and Benin, for bonded labor in the urban and domestic sectors of Equatorial Guinea. To a lesser extent, children being trafficked for domestic labor transit Equatorial Guinea on their way to Gabon. The country’s larger cities are a destination, as well as a transit point on to European countries, for women from Equatorial Guinea, Cameroon, Nigeria and Benin, trafficked for the purpose of sexual exploitation. Estonia (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Not Listed)
Estonia is a source country for women and girls trafficked for the purpose of sexual exploitation, both in the form of internal trafficking and abroad. Victims are trafficked abroad to the Nordic countries and Western Europe, including Poland, Germany, the Netherlands and Iceland. Ethiopia (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Tier 2)
Ethiopia is primarily a source country for women, and to a lesser extent for children, trafficked for domestic labor to the Middle-East, specifically to Lebanon, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. Some women, who are lured by the prospect of employment abroad, are subjected to domestic servitude and sexual abuse. There is also internal trafficking of children for forced labor, and abductions of young women and girls for marriage. France (2002 - Tier 1, 2001 - Tier 2)
France is a destination country for trafficked victims, primarily women, from Africa, Central and Eastern Europe, and the former Soviet Union. To a lesser extent, France is also a transit country for trafficked women from Africa, South America, and Eastern and Southern Europe. Women are trafficked into prostitution and domestic servitude [sexual exploitation or domestic slavery]. There are some reports of Chinese and Colombian men trafficked into bonded or forced labor. Gabon (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Tier 3)
Gabon is primarily a destination country for children trafficked from other West African countries such as Benin, Togo, and Nigeria, for domestic servitude and work in the informal commercial sector. Many children are transported to the Gabonese coast by sea, only to endure long work hours, physical abuse, insufficient food, no wages, and no access to education. A significant number of these children are also sexually abused by their employers. [Women and children are also trafficked to Gabon for sexual exploitation.] Georgia (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Tier 2)
Georgia is a source and transit country for women trafficked primarily to Turkey and Greece for purposes of sexual exploitation and domestic servitude. [Georgians are mostly trafficked to Turkey, Greece, Israel, and Western Europe for work in bars, domestic service, and prostitution. Russian and Ukrainian women are trafficked through Georgia to Turkey.] Germany (2002 - Tier 1, 2001 - Tier 1)
Germany is a primarily a destination country, but also a transit country, for women and girls trafficked for the purpose of sexual exploitation. The Federal Office for Criminal Investigation publishes an annual trafficking report – limited to sex trafficking. The vast majority of victims trafficked to Germany come from the countries of the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, especially Lithuania, Russia, Ukraine, Poland, the Czech Republic, and Latvia. Some victims also come from Africa and Asia. Ghana (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Tier 2)
Ghana is a source, transit, and destination country for internationally trafficked persons. The majority of the victims are children trafficked for labor and domestic help to and from neighboring countries, such as Cote d’Ivoire, Togo, and Nigeria. Some Ghanaian women are trafficked to work as prostitutes in Western Europe, specifically Italy, Germany, and the Netherlands. Ghana is a transit point for a growing trade in Nigerian women trafficked to Europe for sexual exploitation, and for persons trafficked from Burkina Faso to Cote d’Ivoire. Internally, Ghanaian children are sent from the poorest regions to work in the fishing industry and for domestic labor in urban areas. Many of these children, sold by their families to traffickers, suffer physical or sexual abuse and receive insufficient food, no wages, and no access to education. [The practice of "Trokosi" is a localized form of slavery or ritual servitude in which girls are forced into slavery for local fetish shrines in repayment for offenses committed by members of the girls’ families.] Greece (2002 - Tier 3, 2001 - Tier 3)
Greece is primarily a destination country and, to a lesser extent, a transit country, for women and children trafficked for the purpose of sexual exploitation. Major countries of origin include Ukraine, Russia, Bulgaria, Albania, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, and Romania. Women from North Africa (Tunisia and Algeria), Asia (Thailand and the Philippines), the Middle East and other countries (Moldova, Georgia, Poland, and Kazakhstan) are also trafficked to Greece. Guatemala (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Tier 2)
Guatemala is a source and transit country of women and children trafficked for the purpose of sexual exploitation. There is also internal trafficking and in some cases, Guatemala is a destination country for trafficked victims. Illegal migration – including both trafficking in persons and migrant smuggling – of Central Americans, Ecuadorians, Asians and Middle Easterners flows through Guatemala en route to Mexico and the United States. Haiti (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Tier 2)
Trafficking in Haiti mainly involves the internal movement of children, primarily young girls between 6 and 14 years old, from the countryside to the cities for domestic servitude. Poorer families, unable to provide adequately for their children, send their daughters, and in some cases sons, to the cities to work as domestic servants for wealthier families. In return, the poorer families expect their children to receive shelter, food, education and a better life. This centuries-old practice places children, called "restaveks" (derived from the French words "rester avec" meaning "to stay with"), in situations that sometimes lead to exploitation. Although many restaveks receive adequate care, some are placed in slave-like conditions and are subject to violence, threats and other forms of physical and mental abuse. [Some of the former restaveks end up as prostitutes because they lack the resources to return to their families or other opportunities when their services are no longer needed as restaveks.] To a lesser extent, restaveks are sent to the United States, France, Canada and the Dominican Republic. Honduras (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Tier 2)
Honduras is a source of women and children trafficked for the purpose of sexual exploitation. Most Honduran victims are trafficked to Belize, El Salvador,
Guatemala and Mexico. [Honduran children, especially young girls, are trafficked by criminal groups to other Central American countries for purposes of sexual exploitation. Honduran boys reportedly are being trafficked to Canada for the purpose of drug trafficking. There are reports that trafficking in children also occurs within the country's borders.] Hong Kong (2002 - Tier 1, 2001 - Tier 1)
Hong Kong is primarily a transit country for individuals trafficked from China and other Asian Countries. A small number of illegal migrants may be trafficking victims. [Some foreign domestic workers, particularly from Indonesia, have been recruited abroad and brought to Hong Kong only to be placed in coercive working and living conditions. There have also been reports that some women from Vietnam have been brought to Hong Kong as "mail-order brides," who, once in Hong Kong, are vulnerable to exploitation. The authorities are aware of both these problems and have taken steps to remedy them.] Hungary (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Tier 2)
Hungary is a transit country for trafficking victims, and to a lesser extent a source and destination country. Women and girls are trafficked for sexual exploitation mostly from Romania, Ukraine, Moldova, Poland, Yugoslavia, and China to and through Hungary to Austria, Germany, Spain, the Netherlands, Italy, France, Switzerland and the United States. Men trafficked for forced labor through Hungary to European Union countries come from Iraq, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan. [Trafficking victims from Hungary are typically women from the eastern part of the country where unemployment is high.] India (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Tier 2)
India is a country of origin, transit and destination for trafficked persons. Internal trafficking of women and children for purposes of sexual exploitation, domestic servitude, bonded labor, and indentured servitude is widespread. In addition to being trafficked domestically, Indian women and children are trafficked to the Middle East and the West for purposes of forced labor and sexual exploitation. Bangladeshi and Nepalese women and children are trafficked to India, and transit through India en route to Pakistan and the Middle East, for purposes of sexual exploitation, domestic servitude, and forced labor. Many of the children trafficked in or through India are less than eighteen years of age. Indonesia (2002 - Tier 3, 2001 - Tier 3)
Indonesia is a source country for trafficked persons, primarily young women and girls. Foreign destinations of trafficked persons include Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan, Malaysia, Brunei, Persian Gulf countries, Australia, South Korea, and Japan [and there are reports that they are trafficked to Europe and the United States.] Trafficking also occurs within Indonesia’s borders. Victims are trafficked primarily for purposes of labor and sexual exploitation. [Some observers estimate that 20 percent of Indonesia’s 5 million migrant laborers have been trafficked. Indonesia is also a transit country for alien smuggling to Australia from various countries, including China, Vietnam, Iraq, and Afghanistan, although it is not clear how many of these persons actually are trafficked.] Iran (2002 - Tier 3, 2001 - Not Listed)
Iran is a country of origin and transit for trafficked persons. Iranian women and girls have been trafficked to the Gulf States and Turkey for purposes of commercial sexual exploitation. Boys are trafficked through Iran to the United Arab Emirates where they are forced to work as camel jockeys. Internal trafficking of women and girls for purposes of sexual exploitation also occurs. Israel (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Tier 3)
Israel is a destination country for trafficked women. Women from Moldova, Russia, Ukraine, and Brazil [Turkey, South Africa, and some countries in Asia] are trafficked to Israel for the purpose of sexual exploitation. Italy (2002 - Tier 1, 2001 - Tier 1)
Italy is a country of destination and, to a lesser extent, a country of transit for trafficked men, women and children primarily from Albania, Nigeria, Eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union, South America, and Asia. Women and girls are trafficked for prostitution, and some Chinese men are trafficked for forced labor in industry. Japan (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Tier 2)
Japan is a destination country for women trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation and for men trafficked for labor purposes. Some internal trafficking exists, as illegal migrants engaged in commercial sexual exploitation are sold and become bound by debt to the new "owner." Female trafficking victims come from Southeast Asia, especially Thailand and the Philippines, and increasingly from Colombia, Russia and other states of the former Soviet Union. Male victims come primarily from China and other Asian countries. [Japan is also a destination point for illegal immigration from China facilitated by Chinese and Japanese organized crime groups who hold illegal immigrants in debt bondage. Japan is also a major alien smuggling transit point for many travelers who are being trafficked from south and east Asia.] Kazakhstan (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Tier 3)
Kazakhstan is a source, transit and destination country for women and men trafficked for purposes of sexual exploitation and labor. Victims are trafficked to Kazakhstan from the Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan and trafficked to the United Arab Emirates, Greece, Cyprus, France, Italy, Portugal, Switzerland, Belgium, South Korea, Turkey, Israel and Albania. Korea, Republic of (2002 - Tier 1, 2001 - Tier 3)
The Republic of Korea is a source, transit and destination country for trafficking in persons. Koreans are trafficked to Japan and the United States for sexual exploitation. Persons from the Philippines, China, Southeast Asian countries, Russia and other countries of the former Soviet Union are trafficked to Korea or transit Korea en route to Japan and the United States. Kyrgyz Republic (2002 - Tier 3, 2001 - Tier 2)
Kyrgyz Republic is a country of origin, transit and, to a lesser extent, destination for trafficked women, men and children. Women, mostly under 25 years old, are trafficked for prostitution to the United Arab Emirates, Turkey, China, Germany and Greece. Men are trafficked to Kazakhstan for forced labor. Women who are either destined for or transiting through Kyrgyz usually come from Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. Laos (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Tier 2)
Laos is a source of men, women and children trafficked for labor and sexual exploitation. Lao economic migrants, chiefly to Thailand, may find themselves deceived about pay and conditions of work. Some find themselves in coerced labor or slave-like conditions after their arrival. [An estimated 20,000 Lao enter Thailand annually, willingly crossing the border seeking employment based on deceptive claims of recruiters, but many are held in indentured and coercive work situations, primarily for sexual exploitation or in sweat shops, once they arrive.] Latvia (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Not Listed)
Latvia is a source and transit country for women and girls trafficked to the Nordic countries and Western Europe for the purposes of sexual exploitation. Lebanon (2002 - Tier 3, 2001 - Tier 3)
Lebanon is a destination country for trafficked persons. Many trafficking victims come to Lebanon in search of work voluntarily and legally, but are put into situations of coerced labor, and some are put into situations with slave-like conditions, or in which they become victims of sexual exploitation. Women from Ethiopia, Sri Lanka, and the Philippines, are the primary victims of trafficking. To a lesser extent, some women from Russia, Romania, Ukraine, Moldova, and Bulgaria who have come to Lebanon end up in coercive work situations involving sexual exploitation from which they have little recourse. Lithuania (2002 - Tier 1, 2001 - Tier 2)
Lithuania is a source, transit and destination country for trafficking in women and children. Lithuanian women are trafficked primarily to Germany, Spain, Belgium, Netherlands and Norway. The Middle East (Israel and United Arab Emirates), France and Austria are also destination countries. Women from the Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, Latvia and the Lithuanian countryside are trafficked to major Lithuanian cities. Macedonia (2002 - Tier 1, 2001 - Tier 2)
Macedonia is a country of transit and destination primarily for women and children trafficked for prostitution from the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, notably Ukraine, Moldova, Romania and Bulgaria. Some victims remain in Macedonia, while others are trafficked to Albania, Kosovo or Italy. Malaysia (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Tier 3)
Malaysia is a source and destination country for trafficked persons, primarily for the purpose of sexual exploitation. Persons trafficked into Malaysia come from Indonesia, Thailand, China, and the Philippines and a small but increasing number from Uzbekistan. Japan, Canada, the United States, Australia and Taiwan are destinations for Malaysian trafficking victims. Trafficking on a smaller scale also occurs within Malaysia’s borders. Mali (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Tier 2)
Mali is primarily a source country for children trafficked for labor in conditions comparable to involuntary servitude. To a lesser extent, Mali is a transit country for trafficking between Senegal and Cote d'Ivoire, and a destination country for Nigerian women trafficked for purposes of sexual exploitation. Most of the children are trafficked to work in plantation agriculture in Cote d'Ivoire, but some are trafficked internally to urban centers for menial jobs or domestic labor. Mexico (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Tier 2)
Mexico is a source, transit and destination country of women and children trafficked for the purpose of sexual exploitation. There is also internal trafficking of women and children for sexual exploitation. Most victims trafficked to and through Mexico are Central Americans en route to the United States and Canada. There is also a steady flow of Brazilians and Eastern Europeans and to a lesser extent, Asians and Middle Easterners. Moldova (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Tier 2)
Moldova is a source country for women and children trafficked for purposes of sexual exploitation mainly to Turkey, [Italy,] Greece, [the Balkan region] and the Federated Republic of Yugoslavia. Morocco (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Tier 2)
Morocco is a country of origin and transit for trafficked persons. Internal trafficking of girls for domestic servitude as child maids primarily from rural areas to cities is widespread. Internal trafficking of women for purposes of sexual exploitation is also reported. Some Moroccan men and women looking for work in Europe and the Middle East as domestic servants or in the hotel or construction industry are reportedly put into situations of coerced labor, drug trafficking, or sexual exploitation. There are also unsubstantiated reports that some who transit from sub-Saharan African countries through Morocco to Europe may be trafficked. Nepal (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Tier 2)
Nepal is a source of women and girls trafficked primarily to India for purposes of sexual exploitation and bonded labor. In many cases, Nepalese women go to the Middle East in search of work, only to be put into situations of coerced labor, slave-like conditions, or sexual exploitation. Internal trafficking also takes place in Nepal. An ongoing Maoist insurgency has used violence to wrest control over remote areas of Nepal from the government; many trafficking victims originate from those areas. The Maoist insurgents have taken girls and boys from their families and forced them to become conscripts or sex slaves. [Nepalese citizens also are trafficked to Hong Kong, Thailand, and countries in the Middle East.] Netherlands (2002 - Tier 1, 2001 - Tier 1)
The Netherlands is both a destination and transit country for trafficking in persons, predominantly women and girls, from all parts of the world, including Nigeria, Thailand, the Philippines, Russia, Bulgaria, China, South America and Central and Eastern Europe. The Netherlands is a transit country for other European Union countries. Two specific trafficking problems have emerged recently: the disappearances from refugee centers of single underage asylum seekers, mostly from West African countries and China, who are often put to work as prostitutes, and a growing number of "lover boys," young Moroccans or Turks living in the Netherlands who seduce into prostitution young, third-generation Dutch girls of Moroccan, Surinamese and Antillean descent. [According to the Dutch Foundation Against Trafficking in Women, there are between 2,000 and 3,000 trafficked women in the Netherlands.] Nigeria (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Tier 2)
Nigeria is a source, transit, and destination country for persons trafficked to Europe, the Middle East, and West and Central Africa. Nigerian women are trafficked mostly for sexual exploitation to Italy, [Italian authorities estimate that 10,000 Nigerian prostitutes work in Italy, many of them the victims of traffickers] but also to other destinations including France, Spain, the Netherlands, and the Czech Republic. Children are trafficked for domestic and agricultural labor, from and to West and Central African countries, including Benin, Cameroon, [Equatorial Guinea,] Gabon, and Togo. Pakistan (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Tier 3)
Pakistan is a country of origin, transit, and destination for women and children trafficked for purposes of sexual exploitation and bonded labor. Internal trafficking of women and girls from rural areas to larger cities for purposes of sexual exploitation and forced labor also occurs. Afghan girls and women have been trafficked from refugee camps in Pakistan to urban areas for purposes of sexual exploitation and forced labor. Pakistan is a country of origin for young boys who are kidnapped or bought and sent to work as camel jockeys in the United Arab Emirates and Qatar. In many cases, Pakistani men and women go to the Middle East in search of work, only to be put into situations of coerced labor, slave-like conditions, or sexual exploitation. Pakistan serves as a destination point for women and children who are trafficked from Bangladesh, Afghanistan, and Central Asia for purposes of sexual exploitation and forced labor. Women and children trafficked from East Asian countries and Bangladesh to the Middle East transit through Pakistan. Philippines (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Tier 2)
The Philippines is a source, transit, and destination country for internationally trafficked persons. Women are trafficked primarily to destinations in Asia, Europe and the Middle East. Adults and children are trafficked internally from poor, rural areas to urban centers for the purpose of sexual exploitation or forced to work as domestic servants or in other unsafe or exploitative industries. The Philippines is both a destination as well as a transit country for mainland Chinese nationals trafficked to the Pacific Islands nations or to North America. Poland (2002 - Tier 1, 2001 - Tier 2)
Poland is a country of origin, transit and destination for trafficking in persons, primarily women and girls. Persons are trafficked to and through Poland primarily from Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Romania, and Bulgaria. Poles are trafficked to Western Europe, mainly Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and Switzerland. Portugal (2002 - Tier 1, 2001 - Not Listed)
Portugal is a country of destination for people, predominantly men, from Eastern Europe, especially Moldova, Ukraine, Russia and Belarus but also from Brazil and Lusophone Africa, who come to work in the construction industry and are put into exploitative labor conditions. Some women from Eastern Europe are also trafficked into sexual exploitation. Qatar (2002 - Tier 3, 2001 - Tier 3)
Qatar is a destination country for trafficked persons. Women from countries in East Asia, South Asia, [the former Soviet Union,] and Africa have reported being forced into domestic servitude and sexual exploitation. Children from Sudan, Pakistan, and Bangladesh have been trafficked to Qatar and forced to work as camel jockeys. Romania (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Tier 3)
Romania is a source and transit country primarily for women and girls trafficked to Bosnia, Serbia, Macedonia, Kosovo, Albania, Greece, Italy, and Turkey for the purpose of sexual exploitation. [To a lesser extent, men are trafficked to Greece for agricultural labor.] Russia (2002 - Tier 3, 2001 - Tier 3)
Russia is a country of origin for women and children trafficked to many countries throughout Europe, the Middle East and North America [and North Asia.] for purposes of sexual exploitation. [Trafficking also occurs within Russia.] Saudi Arabia (2002 - Tier 3, 2001 - Tier 3)
Saudi Arabia is a country of destination for trafficked persons. Trafficking victims who come to Saudi Arabia in search of work are put into situations of coerced labor. Victims come primarily from Sudan, Somalia, Kenya, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, India, Indonesia, and the Philippines to work as domestic servants and menial laborers. Many low-skilled foreign workers have their contracts altered and are subjected to extreme working conditions and physical abuse. Senegal (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Not Listed)
Senegal is a source and transit country for women and girls trafficked to Europe and the Middle East for sexual exploitation. Nigerian criminal organizations use Dakar as a transit point for women trafficked for purposes of prostitution to Europe, especially Italy. Senegalese children are sometimes held in conditions of involuntary servitude by some religious instructors in Senegal’s larger cities. Sierra Leone (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Tier 2)
Men, women and children have been trafficked internally in Sierra Leone as pawns in a brutal internal conflict. During the course of a 10-year conflict, to which Sierra Leone’s President declared a formal end on January 18, 2002, rebels of the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) abducted individuals and forced them to work as laborers, mainly in the country’s diamond fields. Women and girls who were captured by RUF rebels were used as sex slaves as well as domestic labor. Despite the end of the conflict and the release of some victims, the number of girls released was an extremely small percentage of the estimated number of girls used as sex slaves during the conflict. Moreover, it is likely that small groups of previously captured individuals are still being held for forced labor or sexual servitude. Singapore (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Tier 2)
Singapore is a destination country for women who are trafficked for sexual exploitation, primarily from Thailand, the Philippines, China, India, Vietnam, Sri Lanka, and Indonesia. [Indian, Bangladeshi, and Filipino men and women often face coercive employment situations in indentured servitude due to contracts entered into abroad.] Slovenia (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Tier 2)
Slovenia is primarily a transit country for women and girls from Eastern, Southeastern, and Central Europe trafficked to Western Europe, the United States and Canada. Slovenia is also a destination country for women and teenage girls mostly from other Yugoslav republics, as well as from Ukraine, Moldova, Romania, the Czech Republic and Bulgaria. A small number of Slovene women and teenage girls are trafficked to Western Europe. [Slovenia is a transit and destination country for trafficking; most victims are women trafficked into sexual exploitation from Ukraine, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Moldova, Russia, Romania, and Bulgaria through Slovenia to Italy, Belgium, and the Netherlands.] South Africa (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Tier 2)
South Africa is a destination country for women, mainly between 18 and 25 years old, from other parts of Africa [specifically Angola, Zimbabwe, Lesotho, Swaziland, Zambia, Cameroon, Malawi, and Rwanda], Eastern Europe, Asia [specifically Thailand and Taiwan], and the former Soviet Union. South African women also are trafficked internally. Most of the women are brought to Johannesburg, Cape Town, Durban, Pretoria and Port Elizabeth by trafficking syndicates for work in the sex industry. South Africa is also a transit point for trafficking operations between developing countries and Europe, the United States and Canada. Spain (2002 - Tier 1, 2001 - Tier 1)
Spain is a destination and transit country for trafficked persons, primarily women between the ages of eighteen and thirty trafficked for the purpose of prostitution from Latin America (Colombia, Ecuador, Dominican Republic, Brazil), Africa (Nigeria, Guinea, Sierra Leone), and Eastern Europe. [Trafficking is almost exclusively for the purpose of sexual exploitation, although there is also trafficking for forced labor in agriculture and sweatshops.] Sri Lanka (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Tier 2)
Sri Lanka is a country of origin and destination for trafficked persons. Internal trafficking of persons for purposes of sexual exploitation, domestic servitude, and child soldiers also takes place in Sri Lanka. In many cases, Sri Lankan women go to the Middle East in search of work, only to be put into situations of coerced labor, slave-like conditions, or sexual exploitation. A small number of Thai, Russian, and Chinese women have been trafficked to Sri Lanka for purposes of sexual exploitation. The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) abduct and hold children against their will for purposes of forced labor, military conscription, and in some cases, sexual exploitation. A ceasefire with the LTTE has been in place since December 2001. [. Boys are trafficked to the Middle East (primarily Qatar and the United Arab Emirates) as camel jockeys, but not in significant numbers.] Sudan (2002 - Tier 3, 2001 - Tier 3)
Sudan is a country of destination for internationally trafficked persons, as well as a country with widespread internal trafficking. Thousands of Ugandan men, women and children, have been abducted by rebel groups to be used as sex slaves, domestic helpers, child soldiers, and forcibly conscripted soldiers. Women and children have also been subjected to intertribal abductions for domestic and sexual exploitation in the southern part of the country. There are reports of Sudanese persons being sold into slavery through Chad, to Libya. Switzerland (2002 - Tier 1, 2001 - Tier 1)
Switzerland is a country of destination for trafficking victims, almost exclusively women, and, to a lesser extent, a transit country. [Most of the women trafficked for purposes of sexual exploitation originate from former Eastern bloc and Soviet countries, including the Balkan countries, Hungary, Russia, Ukraine, Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia. A decreasing number of women are from Thailand, the Dominican Republic, Brazil, and Colombia, and some African countries such as Cameroon.] Taiwan (2002 - Not Listed, 2001 - Tier 1)
[Taiwan is a destination point for internationally trafficked persons. Some young women from Southeast Asia, primarily China and Thailand, are trafficked for the purpose of sexual exploitation. Many enter Taiwan by gaining entry permits through sham marriages. A small number of fugitive girls are trafficked internally for sexual exploitation. Thai, Filipino, and Indonesian men sometimes face coercive employment situations created through the repayment of excessive broker fees from employment agencies.] Tajikistan (2002 - Tier 3, 2001 - Not Listed)
Tajikistan is a country of origin for young women trafficked to Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Russia, and countries of the Persian Gulf including the United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Iran and Saudi Arabia for purposes of sexual exploitation. Tanzania (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Not Listed)
Tanzania is a source country for trafficked persons. Available information indicates that trafficking in Tanzania is most often internal and related to child labor, including child prostitution in the larger cities. Some sources also suggest that women and girls may be trafficked to South Africa, the Middle East, North Africa, Asia, and Europe to work as prostitutes. Children are trafficked from rural to urban areas within the country for domestic work, commercial agriculture, fishing, and mining. Children in the country’s large refugee population are especially vulnerable to being trafficked to work on Tanzanian plantations, and some have been transported from refugee camps for training as child soldiers. To a lesser degree, Tanzania is a destination point for trafficked persons from India and surrounding African countries. Thailand (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Tier 2)
Thailand is a source, destination and transit country for trafficking in women and children for sexual exploitation and street begging. Internal trafficking has reportedly declined, however trafficking of foreigners has correspondingly increased . Victims are trafficked from Burma, Cambodia, China, and Laos. Chinese are trafficked through Thailand en route to the United States and other destinations. Thai women are trafficked to Japan, Taiwan, the United States, Australia and Western Europe primarily for sexual exploitation [and, to a lesser degree, sweatshop labor.] Togo (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Tier 2)
Togo is a source and transit country for internationally trafficked persons, mostly children. The majority of the victims are trafficked for indentured servitude or domestic labor to Cote d’Ivoire, Gabon, Ghana, Nigeria, France and Germany. Saudi Arabia and Lebanon [and Kuwait] are also reported destinations. [Children trafficked from Burkina Faso, Ghana, Cote D'Ivoire, and Nigeria transit Togo.] Turkey (2002 - Tier 3, 2001 - Tier 3)
Turkey is a minor country of destination, and transit to other European destinations, for women and girls trafficked into sexual exploitation. Most come from countries of the former Soviet Union, including Azerbaijan, Georgia, Russia, Ukraine, and Moldova. [Turkey is a destination and transit country for trafficking of persons. Women and girls, mostly from Romania, Russia, Ukraine, Moldova, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia, are trafficked to or through Turkey.] Uganda (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Tier 2)
Uganda is a source country for trafficked persons, primarily women and children. Over the past fifteen years, a terrorist organization, the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), has abducted tens of thousands of women and children and forced them to carry stolen goods, to cook, to serve as sex slaves, and to become rebel soldiers. [During the past 10 years, the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) has kidnapped an estimated 5,100 Ugandan, Congolese, and Sudanese children, taken them to southern Sudan, and forced them to become soldiers, labor and sex slaves.] Ukraine (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Tier 2)
Ukraine is a [major] source [and transit] country for women and girls trafficked to [the United States,] Central and Western Europe and the Middle East for purposes of sexual exploitation. United Arab Emirates (2002 - Tier 3, 2001 - Tier 3)
The United Arab Emirates is a country of destination for trafficked persons. Foreign nationals comprise about eighty-five percent of the population, and guest workers make up ninety-eight percent of the country’s private sector workforce. Of these, some who come to the United Arab Emirates for unskilled or semi-skilled employment become the victims of trafficking, since they are subject to coerced labor, slave-like conditions, or sexual exploitation. Those low-skilled foreign workers forced into domestic servitude primarily come from South and Southeast Asian countries, primarily India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Victims trafficked as domestic male servants, laborers and unskilled workers in construction and agriculture come mainly from India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Bangladesh. There are reports that some trafficking victims' employment contracts were altered or switched upon their arrival to the United Arab Emirates without their consent, actions against which such victims have little effective recourse. Women and girls from Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Russia, East Asia and Eastern Europe have reported being lured with the promise of legitimate jobs and then forced into sexual exploitation. Boys from Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka have been trafficked to the United Arab Emirates to work as camel jockeys. United Kingdom (2002 - Tier 1, 2001 - Tier 1)
The United Kingdom is a destination country for the trafficking of women into prostitution and the trafficking of laborers, predominantly men, into agriculture, sweatshops and industry. Female victims are trafficked from Eastern Europe, notably the Balkans. Trafficked laborers come from a variety of countries, including China, Congo, Angola, Colombia, Romania, Yugoslavia and the Indian subcontinent. [A Government-sponsored report estimates that up to 1,500 women and girls are trafficked into the UK annually for purposes of sexual exploitation from Eastern Europe and the Balkans, South America, Nigeria, Thailand, and Vietnam. Although there are no reliable data as to the numbers of victims, men, women, and children from the Indian sub-continent, Sri Lanka, Turkey, the former Yugoslavia, Romania, China, Congo, Angola, Colombia, and Ecuador also are trafficked to the UK; labor exploitation occurs primarily in agriculture, sweatshops, and industry.] United States (Not Listed in the country narratives - would be Tier 1)
The United States is principally a transit and destination country for trafficking in persons. According to a 1997 estimate, some 50,000 women and children are trafficked annually for sexual exploitation into the United States. (From the report introduction.) Vietnam (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Tier 2)
Vietnam is a source and transit country for women and children trafficked for sexual exploitation. There is also internal trafficking of women and children for sexual exploitation. Vietnamese victims are trafficked primarily to China and Cambodia and, to a lesser extent, other destinations in Asia including American Samoa, Hong Kong, Macao, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. Organized crime groups use Vietnam as a transit point for persons trafficked from China and the Middle East to Australia, Canada, and Europe. Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (2002 - Tier 2, 2001 - Tier 3)
The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia is a transit country, and to a lesser extent, a source and destination country for women and girls trafficked for sexual exploitation. Victims, mostly from Moldova, Romania, Ukraine, and Bulgaria end up in Kosovo, Bosnia, Albania, and Western Europe. Roma children are also trafficked through the Federal Republic for begging and theft in Western Europe. Chinese nationals are occasionally trafficked from Serbia to Western Europe.

[Since federal authority was exercised effectively only over the Republic of Serbia throughout the year, the human rights situations in Kosovo and Montenegro are dealt with in separate sections following this report.

The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia is a transit and destination country for women trafficked from Eastern Europe, especially Romania, and the New Independent States, including Moldova, Ukraine, and Russia. According to an International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights report, women often are trafficked to Belgrade, from where they are then taken to other parts of Serbia, Kosovo, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Italy, Greece, Germany, the Netherlands, and other Western European countries, often for sexual exploitation.

Serbia is also a source country for women trafficked to Italy, Greece, Cyprus, Germany, and the Netherlands. There are reports that Roma women and children also are trafficked to Italy, where the females are used in the sex industry and the male children for begging and stealing.

Montenegro is a transit point for trafficked women and children. Some reports also indicate that it is a destination point. Women are trafficked mainly from Moldova, Romania, Ukraine, Bosnia, and Russia, often through Belgrade and on to Western European countries and Kosovo. Some women also are trafficked through Montenegro to Albania and then on to Western European countries.]

Kosovo, while technically part of Serbia, is currently being administered under the authority of the United Nations Interim Administration in Kosovo (UNMIK) pending a determination of its future status in accordance with United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244. Since the adoption of UNSCR 1244 in June 1999, UNMIK has provided transitional administration for Kosovo. UNMIK is aware of the serious problems that exist in Kosovo concerning trafficking and is working to conduct anti-trafficking efforts. UNMIK remains the final authority in Kosovo but is turning over responsibility in most areas to Provisional Institutions of Self-government following Kosovo-wide elections last November and the formation of a coalition government.




Original content copyright © 2002-2005 Lynxx Pherrett. All rights reserved.